In 1635, Don Diego Aragona Tagliavia Cortez, Duke of Terranova, requested and obtained the “licentia populandi”, which was the authorisation to found a new town in his estate of the “Balatazza” for cultivation and the populating of the land surrounding the masseria . In 1650, Montedoro, this was its name, was a miserable hamlet of 78 dwellings and 280 residents. But, thanks to the emphyitheusis perspective, namely the lease of the land destined for production, already in 1715, the population was four times as much, to become eight times as much in 1852. Initially formed by poor dwellings and stables, it became an industrial town with the opening of the mines. Poverty became "of sulphur" in the second half of the 19th Century, and continued until WWI at least. In that period, new roads were laid, a school was built and drinkable water became available. During fascism, the conditions of the poor miners got neither better nor worse, as it was difficult to make them worse than they were already. After WWII, the small town lost one third of its inhabitants, who migrated seeking new opportunities, until the mines were closed. Today, Montedoro is a town that mainly lives on the tertiary sector, with a very high average age, but the wager on the Museum of the Zolfara and the Observatory did pay well, since these are two excellences of the entire District.