Of medieval origins, with a Renaissance-style old town, Caltanissetta is a barycentre, from its 500 metres above sea level, of the Sicily of sulphur and wheat. Although the previous presence of Siculan and Sicanian settlements is certain, confirmed by the findings of the Archaeological Museum, the city acquired its identity and its name during the Arab domination in Sicily. Qal-at-nisa, the castle of the women, and the Castle of Pietrarossa, recount this origin of a small but safe town, far from the pirate raids on the coast and suited for the growing of wheat on half-barren land. With the presence, starting from the 15th Century, of the Moncada family in the feud, the city knew a new season of growth and prosperity, proven by its monuments dating back to that epoch (the Chiesa Madre , today, the Cathedral) and by the idea of the city layout (the division in four neighbourhoods). When, in the 18th Century, the Moncada reduced their presence in the city, the social scene was taken by the rising town gentry and by the new bourgeoisie, until the economic boom tied to the absolute centrality of the Sicilian sulphur, emerged in the 19th Century, albeit with all its human and social contradictions. But even the sulphur took a bend that made it fade in favour of more efficient and humane production processes applied in other parts of the world. The city is undergoing a process of profound renovation that makes it a pleasant town, very important to understand and enjoy the whole District.